International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Incl Education - Documents and Publications

Inclusive Education By Laws

Inclusive Education SIRG By Laws 2016.docx

Minutes of Meetings

Inclusive Education SIRG Minutes Meeting 18th August 2016.docx

Short Articles on Inclusive Education in Different Countries


In Austria in 1993 integrated schooling in primary schools was established in the 15th School Organisation Act Amendment (15. SchOG-Novelle) which gave parents the formal freedom to send their children to a mainstream or a special school. In the meantime, several pilot projects for ‚integrated schooling’ in the lower secondary level (Sekundarstufe I) had been initiated already. In 1996, the 17th School Organisation Act Amendment (17. SchOG-Novelle) was adopted, setting out the legal basis for integrated schooling in the lower secondary level (until 8th grade) and enabling school boards to permit individual variations from the curriculum (Buchner & Gebhardt 2011). Over the last years, discourses around inclusive education have been become more intense, fueled by the CRPD. Thus, the Austrian Ministry of Education emphasized the development of inclusive schools in several policy papers (e.g. BMBF 2015a +b). However, the implementation of the national laws and policies varies significantly across the nine federal states of Austria. The mentioned Austrian Education Acts enabled willing school boards and teachers to provide inclusive education. The federal structure of the Austrian education system allowed the federal states to develop different policies on the implementation of inclusive education. Over the years, these spaces for implementation led to way different efforts in different federal states, as the variety of ‘integration rates’ (= percentage of students labeled as having SEN being educated in mainstream schools) shows. For example, in the school term 2013/2014, the ‘integration rate’ for the whole of Austria was 60%, while the one of the federal state of Tyrol was only 42% and the one of Styria 80% (Bruneforth et al. 2016, 95). However, the presence of students diagnosed as having SEN does not tell much about the quality of educational practices. Recent research has shown, that students with SEN face a higher risk to become marginalized in mainstream settings than their peers (Schwab & Gebhardt, 2016). Thus, ensuring ‘social participation’ of all students can be considered as one the main tasks for Austrian schools in the next years. (Parts of this text have been taken from Smyth et al. 2014)


“In Canada, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Part I of the Constitution Act (1982 Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Part I of the Constitution Act. 1982. Being Schedule B to the Canada Act 1982 (UK), 1982, c.11 {Charter}. ) provides a statement of rights for people with disabilities not to be excluded:

every Canadian is equal before and under the law and has the right to equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, sex, age, or physical disability. (Section 14[1])

Though this Charter is federal legislation, the responsibility for the development and enactment of education policy lies with the provincial and territorial governments; thus, there is a range of inclusive education policy. There is considerable diversity in geography, history, language, and culture across Canada. Geographically, Canada is the second largest country in the world encompassing almost 10 million square kilometres. The estimated total population is 35,141,500 (Statistics Canada, 2013) which is spread unevenly over 10 provinces and 3 territories. Total populations in the provinces range from 145,800 in Prince Edward Island to 13,585,700 in Ontario and the territorial populations range from 34,000 in Nunavut to 43,300 in the Northwest Territories (Statistics Canada, 2013). It is estimated that 80% of the Canadian population lives in urban centres and 45% live in just six metropolitan areas (Council of Ministers of Education in Canada, 2013).

Data from the Statistics Canada 2006 Census (Statistics Canada, 2013) indicated that 1,172,790 people (3.75% of the total population) identified themselves as Aboriginal (First nations, Métis or Inuit). The largest number of Aboriginal people lives in Ontario and the western provinces. However, the percentage of the population varies: for example, Aboriginal people make up 2% of the population in Ontario, 15% in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, 50% in the Northwest Territories, and 85% in Nunavut. Canada is also a bilingual country with French and English as the two official languages. Approximately, 85% of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec (CMEC 2013). Canada's cultural diversity continues to grow and recent statistics indicate that international migration accounted for 73.3% of growth in the first quarter of 2013 (Statistics Canada).

The majority of Canadian jurisdictions provide some legislative or policy direction requiring inclusion of students with exceptional learning needs within general or ‘regular' education. In addition, there has been increased government support for implementation within some jurisdictions. For example, the Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Education began a four-year implementation of an Inclusive Schools Initiative in the 2009–2010 school year (Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Education, 2012) and the Government of New Brunswick announced a commitment of over $62 million over three years to improve inclusion and intervention services (Government of New Brunswick, 2012)”.

From: Thompson, S. Anthony, Lyons, Wanda & Timmons, Vianne (2014): Inclusive education policy: What the leadership of Canadian teacher associations has to say about it, International Journal of Inclusive Education (pp.122-123).

Publications and Articles

Drexler, C. & Buchner, T. (2017): Inklusive Schule braucht inklusive (Fort)Bildung – ein Brückenschlag. In: Erziehung und Unterricht 167(3-4), 302-310

Buchner, T. (2015): Mediating Ableism: Border work and resistance in the biographical narratives of young disabled people. In: Zeitschrift für Inklusion online 02/2015, http://www.inklusion-online.net/index.php/inklusion-online/article/view/272/255

Buchner, T., Smyth, F., Biewer, G., Shevlin, M., Ferreira, M., Toboso-Martín, M., Rodriguez Diaz, S., Latimier, C., Šiška, J. & Kánová S., 2015): Paving the way through mainstream education: the interplay of families, schools and disabled students. Research Papers in Education, 30(4), 433-445

Biewer, G., Buchner, T., Shevlin, M., Smyth, F., Šiška, J., Kánová S., Ferreira, M., Toboso-Martín, M. & Rodriguez Diaz, S. (2015): Pathways to inclusion in European higher education systems. In: Alter - European Journal of Disability Research/Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap. 9(4), 278-289

Lyons, Wanda E., Thompson, S. Anthony & Timmons, Vianne (2016) ‘We are inclusive. We are a team. Let's just do it’: Commitment, collective efficacy, and agency in four inclusive schools. International Journal of Inclusive Education 20 (8), pp. 889-907. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2015.1122841

Smyth, F., Shevlin, M., Buchner, T., Biewer, G., Flynn, P., Latimier, C., Šiška, J., Kánová S., Ferreira, M., Toboso-Martín, M. & Rodriguez Diaz, S. (2014): Inclusive education in progress: policy evolution in four European countries. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 29(4), 433-445

Thompson, S. A., & Timmons, V. (2017). Authentic Inclusion in Two Secondary Schools:" It's the Full Meal Deal. It's Not Just in the Class. It's Everywhere." Exceptionality Education International, 27(1). Retrieved from: http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/eei/vol27/iss1/4/

Timmons, Vianne & Thompson, S. Anthony (2017). Voices of Inclusion. Published by The University of Regina. Retrieved from: http://ourspace.uregina.ca/handle/10294/7770

Thompson, S. Anthony, Lyons, Wanda & Timmons, Vianne (2014): Inclusive education policy: What the leadership of Canadian teacher associations has to say about it, International Journal of Inclusive Education, Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2014.908964

Thompson, S. Anthony (2013). Thrice disabling disability: enabling inclusive, socially just teacher education. International Journal of Inclusive Education 16 (1), pp. 99-117 Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13603111003671640