The agreement with Afghanistan does not explicitly authorize the United States to conduct military operations in Afghanistan, but acknowledges that such operations are “ongoing.” Congress authorized the use of military force there (and elsewhere) by a joint resolution in 2001 to “target nations, organizations, or individuals who planned, authorized, committed, or supported the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.” 49 The United Nations Security Council implicitly recognised that the use of force in response to the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 was appropriate50 and then authorised the dispatch of an International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to Afghanistan.51 Subsequent United Nations. 54 The last group of SOFAs examined is that of agreements concluded as single executive agreements, without any activity or exercise. These agreements contain a broad language of applicability. Some of these agreements apply to U.S. personnel “present” in a country, others apply to U.S. personnel who are “temporarily” in a country. In addition to time limitations, most agreements contain a language that attempts to adjust the scope of activities. The activities described can be as broad as “official tasks” or specific to a certain class of activities (e.g.B humanitarian aid, exercises and/or training). In the 1950s, nearly 40 years before the 1991 Gulf War, the United States concluded a series of agreements with Iraq, including (1) a military assistance agreement (T.I.A.S. 3108. April 1954); (2) an Agreement on the making available of military equipment and equipment made available under the Military Assistance Agreement (T.I.A.S. 3289. Agreement of 25 July 1955); and (3) an economic aid agreement (T.I.A.S.
3835. agreement of 18 and 22 May 1957). However, in response to the revolution of July 14, 1958 and the ensuing changes in the Iraqi government, the United States agreed to denounce the above-mentioned agreements (10 U.S.T. 1415); T.I.A.S. 4289; 357 U.N.S.T. 153. Exchange of notes in Baghdad on 30 May and 7 July 1959. Entered into force on 21 July 1959). The deadly attacks on Afghan civilians, allegedly carried out by a U.S. soldier, have raised questions about the status of the U.S.-Afghanistan forces agreement, which would determine whether Afghan law would apply in these circumstances. SOFAs are multilateral or bilateral agreements that generally set out the framework within which U.S. military personnel operate in a foreign country and how domestic laws of foreign jurisdiction apply to U.S.
personnel in that country. 55 Statistics. 1560; Executive Agreement Series 235 (The agreement entitled “Leasing of Naval and Air Bases” stipulates that the bases and facilities will be leased in the United States for a period of ninety-nine years, exempt from all rents and royalties. A typical lease agreement involves the agreement of a lessor to transfer specially described premises for a fixed period of time and for remuneration/rental in the exclusive ownership of the tenant. In the present case, the contract provided for a lease agreement without consideration/rent; it could therefore be argued that a user agreement and not a lease has been established.) . . . .